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Increment and Decrement

++x and x++ used to increment x (equivalent to x = x + 1)
--x and x-- used to decrement x (equivalent to x = x - 1)

Pre-decrement and post-decrement work in a similar fashion.

Note: This only matters if the variable is actually used in another expression. These two statements by themselves have the exact same effect:

  x++;	// increment x
  ++x;  // increment x
Examples of pre-increment and post-increment
  int a = 5, b = 3;
  int c = b * ++a;	// After this statement, c is 18, a is 6

  int x = 6, y = 4;
  int d = x - y++;	// After this statement, d is 2, y is 5